69 – The prefect of Egypt Tiberius Julius Alexander orders his troops to pronounce an oath of allegiance to Vespasian as emperor; on this day the anniversary of Vespasian’s ascent to the throne will be celebrated.
1097 – In the battle of Dorylaeum the Crusaders defeat the Seljuks Turks.
1457 – Construction works begin on the Naviglio Martesana led by Bertola da Novate.
1644 – Colberger Heide’s fourth naval battle in the context of the Torstenson War, in which the Danish fleet, commanded directly by King Christian IV of Denmark, defeats the Swedish fleet, whose commander dies in battle.
1655 – The Swedish army occupies Dünaburg. The Second Northern War begins between King Charles X’s Swedish Empire and John II Casimir’s Poland-Lithuania.
1782 – American pirates attack Lunenburg, Nova Scotia.
1820 – Some departments of the Bourbon army, near Nola, commanded by two young generals, Michele Morelli and Giuseppe Salviati, rise up against the government of Ferdinando I, requesting a Constitution of the type of the Spanish one.
1823 – Proclamation of the United Provinces of Central America.
1858 – Joint reading of the writings of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace on the evolution of the Linnaean society.
1861 – The publications L’Osservatore Romano begins in Rome, founded by two lawyers, Nicola Zanchini from Forlì and Giuseppe Bastia from Bologna.
1862 – The Russian State Library is established in St. Petersburg.
– American Civil War: the Battle of Gettysburg begins;
– Martini was born in Turin.
1867 – The British North America Act enters into force as a constitution of Canada, creating the Canadian Confederation; John A. Macdonald swears as Prime Minister.
1870 – The United States Department of Justice is born.
1872 – Princess Alice of Hesse-Darmstadt, the last tsarina of Russia, is baptized with a Lutheran rite, with the name of Alessandra Feodorovna.
1873 – Prince Edward Island enters the Canadian Confederation.
1880 – The city of Prnjavor with its province is founded.
1881 – First international telephone call between St. Stephen (New Brunswick) and Calais (Maine).
1885 – The United States ends reciprocity and fisheries agreements with Canada.
1890 – Canada and Bermuda are connected by a telegraph cable.
1903 – Maurice Garin wins the first stage of the first Tour de France.
1904 – St. Louis: the III Olympiad begins.
1905 – Italy: the newly formed Ferrovie dello Stato (a company founded on 22 April) brought together the Mediterranean, Adriatic and Sicilian railway networks under one administration, creating the first Italian national railway network.
1908 – The SOS signal is adopted as an international signal for the request for help.
1916 – First day of the Battle of the Somme, in which 20,000 British Army soldiers are killed and 40,000 injured. The battle will last until November, causing around one million deaths.
1921 – Foundation of the Chinese Communist Party in Shanghai.
1923 – The Canadian Parliament blocks immigration from China.
1931 – Official inauguration of Milan Central Station.
1933 – The 10-year air cruise begins in which Italo Balbo will guide a formation of Savoia Marchetti S.55X (10th) seaplanes from Italy to the United States of America.
1935 – Heinrich Himmler, Hermann Wirth and Walter Darré found Ahnenerbe.
1942 – World War II: the First Battle of El Alamein begins, in which the Axis Powers, commanded by Erwin Rommel, and the Allies confronted each other.
1948 – First plane leaves from Idlewild Field, New York; at the end of the same month, the airport will be named New York International Airport and later renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport.
1960 – Italian Somalia becomes independent and joins Somaliland, definitively ending the Italian administration.
1962 – Independence of Rwanda and Burundi.
1963 – US post offices introduce the zip code.
1967 – The Italian post offices introduce the postal code, the postal code.
1968 – The nuclear non-proliferation treaty is signed in Geneva by some sixty nations.
1972 – Andreas Baader, Jan-Carl Raspe and Holger Meins of Rote Armee Fraktion are captured in Frankfurt after a shootout with the police.
1980 – O Canada officially becomes the Canadian national anthem.
1987 – Europe: the Single European Act enters into force.
1991 – The Warsaw Pact is officially dissolved.
1996 – Version 1.0 of the PNG, an open source competitor of the Gif image format, is finalized.
1997 – The United Kingdom surrenders sovereignty over Hong Kong to the People’s Republic of China.
2000 – Joris Vercammen is consecrated vetero-catholic archbishop of Utrecht.
2002 – Flight 2937 of the Bashkirian Airlines (Tupolev TU-154) collides with a Boeing 757 cargo DHL over the skies of Überlingen, Germany, killing 71 people.
2003 – 500,000 people take part in a march in Hong Kong to protest, among other things, about the governmental management of plans to implement a new anti-subversion law required by Article 23 of the Hong Kong Fundamental Laws
– The Cassini-Huygens probe begins insertion into the orbit of Saturn at 01:12 UT and ends at 02:48 UT;
– The church of Padre Pio is officially inaugurated in San Giovanni Rotondo.
– Italy says goodbye to compulsory military service: military military service remains open only to volunteers;
– The experts of the National Gallery in London announce that, analyzing the painting of the Virgin of the Rocks by Leonardo da Vinci using infrared rays, they found an earlier drawing under it, attributable to Leonardo himself. According to a first analysis, the artist’s intention was originally to represent the adoration of Jesus, and then change his mind later.
2009 – Swedish becomes the official language of Sweden.
2012 – The final of the 2012 European Football Championship takes place in Kiev, Italy-Spain, which sees Spain win 4-0; the Iberian national team is confirmed as the European champion, winning his third European title.
2013 – Croatia joins the European Union.
2017 – At Enzo Ferrari Park in Modena, Vasco Rossi performs in front of 220 thousand people (world record of tickets sold for a single artist), in the event to celebrate his forty years of career, Modena Park.