On 29 May 1917 he was born in Brooklyn to a family of Irish origins, John Fitzgerald Kennedy. In 1960, after military service in the Coast Guard, Kennedy became the first Catholic president in the history of the United States of America.
His foreign policy was at the center of the most severe criticisms, after the failed attempt to invade the Bay of pigs and the subsequent Cuban missile crisis. In terms of internal politics, he engaged in the fight against unemployment with a huge social subsidy program and wage increases; Investments in scientific research and space programs were also increased, as well as expenses for military defense, with the consequent increase in orders for the war industries.
In terms of foreign policy, however, the first months of 1961 were marked by a series of international crises: Kennedy was determined to continue the policy of “containment” of a communism that was dangerously extending putting democracy at risk, and with this Spirito approved a strategic plan prepared by the previous administration which proposed to overthrow the Cuban communist regime of Fidel Castro. The landing operation at Baia dei Porci, however, failed dramatically and the president assumed full responsibility for it. In an attempt to start a dialogue with the Soviet Union, in the spring of 1961 he met with the Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev with whom he agreed the neutralization of Laos, then threatened by the communist revolutionaries, but was unable to reach an agreement that would dampen the ongoing tensions in Berlin.
When the Wall was erected in Berlin in August of the same year, Kennedy responded by sending 1,500 men to the German city. When he went to the city, the western wall of the city to be exact JFK pronounced in German the famous phrase “I am Berliner” as to guarantee that the German people would never be left alone against Soviet and GDR communism. The tensions of the Cold War intensified further when the Soviet Union resumed nuclear tests in the atmosphere; the threat of a new world conflict became pressing in the fall of 1962, with the Cuban missile crisis. Some US reconnaissance planes, flying over the island of Cuba, discovered the existence of Soviet missile bases: the American president placed an embargo on the island, ordering the Soviet Union to dismantle the bases.
The intervention of Pope John with a live broadcast was necessary, it was a dramatic live broadcast in which the “good Pope” as he was called, implored the parties involved to choose the path of peace and dialogue. His prayers, and those of the world that for a few hours saw himself on the brink of a new world war, were answered. On October 28, Khrushchev adhered to Kennedy’s request and the President of the United States dissolved the embargo by ensuring that the island would not be invaded. The Soviet retreat was a political and personal triumph for Kennedy. The international climate relaxed more in 1963, when the US, Great Britain and the USSR managed to reach an agreement to ban nuclear tests. Kennedy also established theAlliance for progress, an aid plan for the economic development of Latin America.
However, these international successes were overshadowed by the worsening situation in Vietnam, where Kennedy had sent 17,000 men to support an unstable regime threatened by corruption and a growing communist revolt. Initially the president favored a form of “soft” intervention by founding the Green Berets Units, the famous Green Berets who were sent to Vietnam as instructors. Although the whole area including Cambodia and Laos were under constant attack by the communists foraged and armed by the USSR, China and the Warsaw Pact countries. In the autumn of 1963, the president began organizing the campaign for his re-election; the commitment to promote racial integration and guarantee the right to vote for blacks had sparked growing discontent and racist-inspired groups had provoked serious episodes of violence. On November 22, while crossing the city of Dallas in an uncovered limousine, Kennedy was hit with at least two shots, one of which was in the back but the torso he wore prevented him from leaning forward while a bullet hit him in the head. We still remember all the images of when the bullet devastated the neck of JFK and immediately Jaqueline reached out to recover the skull fragments scattered on the car. The president died hours later in the hospital where everything possible was tried. The news of his assassination aroused immense emotion both in the country and throughout the world.
A few hours after his death, a former marine, Lee Harvey Oswald, was arrested, who two days later was in turn assassinated while being transferred from one prison to another. In September 1964, President of the Supreme Court Earl Warren ended the investigation by establishing that the president had been killed by Oswald, who had acted alone, but the ruling did not fail to raise many doubts, still unsolved. Among the various hypotheses, also confirmed by the declarations of numerous witnesses, that of a conspiracy for political purposes, perhaps hatched by the mafia or Cuban exiles, is making its way. The story of the assassination of JFK still ignites discussions and arouses uncertainties and numerous questions, either for the love and popularity that the political and human figure was able to conquer, or because despite the commitment of the Warren commission was as widespread as possible and scrupulous are still the gray areas that perhaps will never be clarified. The dream of a young America with a desire for future and freedom was extinguished in the worst way.