308 – Marcello I is elected pope by the Roman clergy.
1 2 3 4
– Louis IX of France marries Margaret of Provence;
– The farmers of Steding (northern Germany), in revolt, are massacred by a crusader army: more than 5 thousand victims.
1328 – Philip VI is crowned king of France.
1508 – Ludovico il Moro dies in the Loches Castle in France.
1644 – Battle of the Shanhai Pass: the Manchus win the battle against the Shun Dynasty and become the new Chinese emperors by founding the Qing Dynasty which will remain in power until 1912.
1703 – Tsar Peter I of Russia founds the city of St. Petersburg.
1813 – War of 1812: In Canada, U.S. forces conquer Fort George.
1832 – Pope Gregory XVI publishes the encyclical “Summo iugiter”, on marriages between Catholics and non-Catholics, on the concordat between Bavaria and the Holy Church, on the doctrine of “Outside the Church there is no salvation”.
1859 – Battle of San Fermo: victory of the Hunters of the Alps and conquest of Como.
1860 – The Palermo Uprising begins, which will lead to the conquest of the city by the Expedition of the Thousand.
1883 – Alexander III is crowned Tsar of Russia.
1901 – Edison Storage Battery Company is founded in New Jersey.
1905 – Russo-Japanese War: decisive defeat of the Russian fleet in the Battle of Tsushima.
1907 – A bubonic plague epidemic breaks out in San Francisco, California.
1919 – The NC-4 seaplane, coming from the Azores Islands, arrives in Lisbon, completing the first Atlantic crossing with an intermediate stop. The plane will then continue to Plymouth in England, the last leg of the journey.
1923 – The first 24 Hours of Le Mans ends.
1924 – Music Corporation of America (Mca) is founded.
– Ford ceases production of the Ford Model T and starts converting the factory to produce the new Ford Model A;
– Thomas Masaryk is elected president of Czechoslovakia for the second time.
1930 – The American Richard Drew invents adhesive tape.
1933 – New Deal: The Federal Securities Act is converted into law, requiring registration of securities to the Federal Trade Commission.
1935 – New Deal: the United States Supreme Court declares the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional.
1936 – RMS Queen Mary begins her maiden voyage.
1937 – In California, the Golden Gate Bridge opens to pedestrian traffic, creating a vital link between San Francisco and Marin County.
1939 – Detective Comics # 27 comes out in the USA, a comic that sees the first appearance of Batman, a character created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger.
– World War II: 97 of the 99 members of a Royal Norfolk Regiment unit are massacred as they try to surrender in Dunkirk. The German commander, Captain Fritz Knochlein, will be hanged for war crimes;
– The Egie Quartet (which will later become the Quartetto Cetra) debuts at the Teatro Valle in Rome.
– World War II: In the United States Roosevelt proclaims the “unlimited national emergency”;
– World War II: the German warship Bismarck is sunk in the North Atlantic.
1942 – World War II: SS General Reinhard Heydrich is severely injured by an attack by Czechoslovak patriots during Operation Anthropoid. He will die in Prague eight days later from his injuries.
1960 – In Turkey General Cemal Gürsel leads a military coup d’état which removes President Celâl Bayar and the rest of the democratic government.
1963 – Jomo Kenyatta is elected Prime Minister of Kenya.
1965 – Vietnam War: U.S. warships bomb targets of the National Liberation Front of Vietnam for the first time, located within South Vietnam.
1972 – President of the Soviet Union Leonid Brežnev and President of the United States Richard Nixon sign the Salti agreement.
1974 – Valéry Giscard d’Estaing becomes President of the French Republic.
1993 – Dynamite attack of mafia origin in via dei Georgofili in Florence.
1996 – First Chechen War: Russian President Boris Yeltsin meets with Chechen rebels for the first time and negotiates a ceasefire.
1998 – Oklahoma City bombing: Michael Fortier is sentenced to 12 years in prison and fined $ 200,000 for not warning the terrorist plan authorities,
1999 – The Hague War Crimes International Tribunal incriminates Slobodan Milošević and four other people for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Kosovo.
2006 – A terrible earthquake in Java, with its epicenter in the town of Yogyakarta, takes 5,700 victims and leaves 200,000 people homeless.