Cholesterol: a new drug halves the “bad” one


A great experimentation of a new drug against the cholesterol: seems to be able to halve the value of cholesterol LDL (that “bad“) Even in those who have not benefited from taking statins. Two injections per year would be sufficient, which is why it is defined as “vaccine“.
There BBC reports that the first 40,000 people will be treated this year thanks to an agreement signed between the National Health System and the Novartis company: according to preliminary tests, the first results could be obtained in a few weeks.
The molecule, incisiran, is an inhibitor of a gene called PCSK9, which is also the target of other drugs developed by different companies, and allows the liver to absorb more LDL cholesterol.
The first phase of the test will be limited to England: subjects who have not had a serious cardiovascular event but are considered to be at high risk will participate, and if the outcome is deemed positive, the use will be extended, including at least 300 thousand people.

High cholesterol: from the causes to the diet to follow to lower it, info on the optimal values ​​(LDL, HDL, total)

The cholesterol belongs to the lipid or fat family; it is one of the components of the cell membrane and is present in the blood and in all tissues. While, in physiological quantities, it is indispensable for building healthy cells when the cholesterol is tall, constitutes one of the major risk factors for heart disease. In fact, excess cholesterol can cause the formation of fat deposits in the blood vessels, also called atherosclerotic plaques, which in turn contribute to narrowing the lumen, causing heart attack and stroke due to obstruction of the passage of blood. It is called “high cholesterol” or “hypercholesterolemia“A value of cholesterol total blood content greater than 240 mg / dl.

Below is the in-depth analysis on the topic published by theHumanitas Research Hospital, highly specialized hospital, research center and university teaching location: promotes health, prevention and early diagnosis.

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a fat present in the blood which is largely produced by the body, while in a minimal part it is introduced with the diet. While, in physiological quantities, cholesterol is involved in several fundamental processes for the functioning of the body, when it is present in excessive quantities, it constitutes one of the major risk factors for heart disease. The excess cholesterol, in fact, tends to settle on the walls of the arteries, causing the formation of lesions that thicken and stiffen them. This process, called atherosclerosisover time, it can lead to the formation of real plaques, which hinder – or completely block – blood flow, with consequent risks for the cardiovascular system.
Cholesterol present in the blood is transported within molecular structures called lipoproteins. At least two main types of lipoprotein are recognized: le low density lipoprotein or LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein, from which the abbreviation derives), also known as “bad” cholesterol, because they transport excess cholesterol from the liver to the arteries and release it into the vessels resulting in atherosclerosis; the high density lipoprotein or HDL (High Density Lipoprotein), known in turn as “good” cholesterol, because they favor the removal of cholesterol from the blood and its elimination through bile salts, effectively protecting the heart and vessels. The total cholesterol measured in the blood is roughly the sum of LDL + HDL.

What are the causes of high cholesterol?

Several conditions are associated with the development of a high cholesterol. Among these we can list: overweight, obesity, unhealthy nutrition, the habit of smoke – which in the long term damages the blood vessels and accelerates the hardening of the arteries lack of physical activity. Some metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, are often associated with hypercholesterolaemia. Some individuals, on the other hand, are genetically predisposed to develop hypercholesterolemia: it is a condition known as “hereditary or familial hypercholesterolaemia” and is associated with a series of genetic mutations.

What are the symptoms of high cholesterol?

The presence of high cholesterol in the blood does not cause any symptoms: undergoing a blood test is the only way to detect this anomaly.

High cholesterol: diagnosis

High cholesterol can only be diagnosed through a blood test. In this way it will be possible to dose the levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. The values ​​are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg / dl) and have been associated with different degrees of cardiovascular risk. While low levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol are desirable, high levels of HDL cholesterol are desirable.

Normal or pathological values ​​of cholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk

Values ​​(mg / dL), levelCardiovascular risk
Total cholesterol<200: normallow, desirable value
200-239: high borderlinemoderate
> 240: Hightall
LDL cholesterol<130: normallow, desirable value
130-159: high borderlinemoderate
> 159: hightall
HDL cholesterol<40 in men
<50 in women: low
40 / 50-59: normalmedium low
> 60: highlow (protective for
cardiovascular diseases)

How to lower high cholesterol: all recommended foods such as foods and cooking methods should be avoided

The blood analysis have detected a level of cholesterol too high, what can be done to limit the damage? Which ones are they alimony Recommended is food from to avoid? Which methods of cooking to prefer? To answer are the experts of theHumanitas Research Hospital, highly specialized hospital, research center and university teaching venue, which promotes health, prevention and early diagnosis.

To begin with – is explained in depth on the subject – you can change your food style. The choice of certain foods favors the elimination of LDL cholesterol, also called “bad cholesterol“, And becomes a weapon to fight hypercholesterolemia.

How to lower high cholesterol: recommended foods

Green light to cereals, legumes is vegetable: these foods – specify experts from Humanitas Research Hospital – do not contain cholesterol and help reduce levels of excess. Plants rich in fiber also contribute to reducing the absorption of food cholesterol in the intestine. In case of high cholesterol it is therefore good to consume normal portions of cereals, preferring wholemeal ones to processed ones, and legumes, taking the latter at least 2-4 times a week. Among the cereals are therefore recommended bread, pasta and brown rice, but also spelled, oats and barley. Instead, go for fruit and vegetables, not forgetting to include 2-3 portions of vegetables and 2 of fruit on the daily menu.

The fish he is welcome. Consumption at least 2 or 3 times a week is recommended for those with high cholesterol problems thanks to the particular composition of its fat. However, it should be remembered that they are preferred cooking grilled, baked or steamed, while frying is to be avoided. As for the consumption of molluscs and crustaceans, it must not be more than once a week.

Little oil and the good one. Saturated fats of animal origin cause the increase in cholesterol levels, while unsaturated fats of vegetable origin are able to reduce it. To avoid, therefore, butter, lard is lard in favor of polyunsaturated or monounsaturated vegetable oils, such as extra virgin olive oil.

You can freely consume the meat, both red and white. However, lean cuts are preferred. Always remember, before cooking, to remove visible fat and to peel poultry.

Less fat is better: it is good to limit the consumption of sausages, cheeses is eggs which contain rather high amounts of fat and which negatively affect the cholesterol level. Prefer skim milk or partially skimmed to the whole one.

As for the methods of cooking those without the aid of added fats should be preferred – such as boiling, the steaming, the microwave cooking or the grilling– and the use of frying in a pan or in the fryer is discouraged.

How to lower cholesterol, pressure and blood sugar by “cutting” calories

According to a new study by the Duke University, Published on ‘The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology‘. In adults with a healthy weight (or just a few extra pounds), drop approx 300 calories to the day has significantly improved levels of cholesterol already good, but also pressure, glycemia and other marker cardiovascular. It emerged from a randomized controlled trial, conducted on 218 adults under 50 years of age.
The trial, part of an ongoing project with the National Institutes of Health, is based on the researchers’ hypothesis that not only weight loss leads to these heart-saving improvements, but a more complex metabolic change, triggered by eating less calories from those ‘burned’.
There is something about calorie restriction, some mechanism that we don’t understand yet, which translates into these improvements“Said lead study author William E. Kraus, cardiologist and professor of medicine at Duke. “We have collected blood, muscle and other samples from these subjects and will continue to investigate this metabolic signal, or magic moleculeMysterious.
After two years of study, the participants also showed the reduction of a biomarker indicating chronic inflammation, linked to heart disease, cancer and cognitive decline. “This shows that even a not so important change, like the one we applied in this study, could reduce the ‘weight’ of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in our country“Kraus said. “People can“Eliminate a few hundred calories a day”quite easily, for example avoiding snacks after dinner“.

Please note that the information on this page is of a general nature and for informational purposes and in no case replaces the doctor’s opinion., the first point of reference to use for information, clarifications, and to rely on for advice or exams.


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