"The pension reform is a real minefield"

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Age, contribution period, point system … Our political reporter Raphaëlle Besse Desmoulières, a specialist in social protection, answered questions from Internet users.

Posted today at 13h43, updated at 13h59

Time to Reading 5 min.

Announcing unexpectedly, Monday, August 26, that he preferred "An agreement on the duration of contribution rather than on age" to be able to benefit from a full-rate pension, Emmanuel Macron has reshuffled the cards of a party that could appear relatively closed since the presentation on July 18, the report on the subject of Jean-Paul Delevoye, high commissioner who pilot the folder.

Our political journalist Raphaëlle Besse Desmoulières, a specialist in social protection, answered your questions on pension reform, which should notably make it possible to create a universal points system, to abolish special schemes and to make French workers work. " Longer ".

Claude Ferrier: Is the point system envisaged already in place for supplementary pensions?

Raphaëlle Besse Desmoulières: This is indeed the case: at Agirc-Arrco, the supplementary pension for employees in the private sector, the system operates in points. On the other hand, the basic pension is based on an annuity system that combines several parameters, including the legal age and the number of quarters paid.

Velo: We talk a lot about the basic plan, but not supplementary pensions. Are they affected by the reform? In particular, there is a big difference between the executive and the non-executive in relation to contributions and pensions.

In the universal system desired by the government, the complementary pensions of the private sector, as well as the special schemes, must disappear and with them the joint management of the Argic-Arrco.

Fouad : Was not the executive's desired retirement revolution a tactic to speed up the 43-year-old vote passed since the previous five-year period?

This is the debate that took place in the spring when the controversy about age arose. During his interview on France 2 Monday, Emmanuel Macron said he wanted the system to be in balance when it came into effect in 2025.

This means that the government has not given up on parametric measures to change the current system. The speeding up of the calendar set by the 2014 Touraine law – which provides for a gradual increase in the contribution period to 172 quarters, ie 43 years for the generations born in 1973 and later, by 2035 – is indeed one of the tracks considered.

But it has a major disadvantage for the executive: to make substantial savings quickly, it is necessary to accelerate "Brutally" this calendar, which could cause social unrest. We explained this in the article below:

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also Pensions: the executive faces a perilous choice

Chris: What is the retirement for low-bonus teachers who start working at age 23-24 for a retirement at age 67?

This is one of the problematic issues of reform. In the civil service, the reference to the last six months for the calculation of the pension disappears (like that of the best 25 years in the private sector). The calculation will be done on the whole career. It is now planned to take into account the bonuses that civil servants receive – which was very little so far.

If this is good news for those who receive it, it is less good for others, especially teachers who do not have very high salaries. Emmanuel Macron also recognized the problem Monday on France 2 by declaring: "There are certain professions that – if we do things mechanically – would be harmed: nurses, caregivers, teachers. (…) There will be no pension reform until we have a real transformation of these professions. "

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also Back to school: government plays appeasement with teachers

Philippe: From what date does this new law come into force?

The future system is expected to come into effect in 2025. It will apply "At the earliest to insured persons born as of 1963 who will be more than five years from their retirement at the time of the vote of the law", said the Delevoye report.

Ray: What do you think are the possible scenarios for extending the contribution period? Which generations would be affected?

For the time being, no clarification has been given on this point after Mr. Macron's statements of Monday, August 26. Prime Minister Edouard Philippe receives the social partners on Monday, September 3rd. This subject will naturally be part of the discussion. The contribution period must already change in the coming years: the 2014 Touraine law, which comes into force in 2020, has already gradually increased it to 172 quarters in 2035, or 43 years.

One of the tracks studied in the spring was to advance this ten-year calendar (2025 instead of 2035) but with a significant social risk. The CFDT has already said that it would oppose an acceleration of this calendar as to an extension of the contribution period.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also Laurent Berger: "So much the better if we are listened to"

Fausto Coppi: How can we affect the contribution period in a point pension system? Will one euro of contribution during a year be worth a full year?

This is indeed a good question. If everything is still possible, technically introducing a contribution period in a point system is complicated. This notion of duration of contribution is the main specificity of a pension plan in annuities. In a point system, it disappears because all periods worked generate points. Reintroducing this data may lead to a complicated mechanism, or even a gas plant, which would remove the promise of simplification brandished since Emmanuel Macron's presidential campaign on the subject.

Read also Retirement: Macron "prefers" agreement on contribution period rather than age of departure

Seb: Will long careers be called into question?

The Delevoye report recommends keeping the long career system, which allows those who started working very early to liquidate their rights from the age of 60.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also "Age of equilibrium" at age 64, end of special schemes: what Delevoye advocates for pension reform

Chris: Why Emmanuel Macron pushes the post-municipal pension reform?

This is indeed what seems to be emerging. This morning, the Minister of Action and Public Accounts, Gérald Darmanin, announced on RTL that the second phase of the consultation sought by the President of the Republic would last "A little less than a year". The calendar seems so relaxed because, in July, there was still talk of the bill being presented at the end of the year for a review in Parliament in early 2020.

Read also The pension reform bill will be presented after the municipal elections

Already at the time, it was uncertain that it would be discussed before the municipal elections, which will take place in March. From now on, it seems even more distant. This pension reform is a real minefield. All subjects have an explosive potential and tackling them all together is very risky socially. Especially since, for many observers, the crisis of "yellow vests" is still brooding. Emmanuel Macron seems so determined to take his time. His problem now will be to find the right timing for this reform while the presidential 2022 is coming soon.

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