More than 1,000 Aboriginal women have disappeared or been murdered in Canada in recent decades. A "genocide ", Concludes a public inquiry, whose report was submitted Monday, June 3 after more than two years of work.
The perpetrators of these murders and disappearances were of all ethnic origins. Some were the partners of these women, others of their entourage. Sometimes they were foreigners, including serial killers, the investigation at a ceremony in the presence of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, and the families of the missing in Gatineau, a Quebec city across the street. Ottawa.
The report notes that Aboriginal women and girls face a disproportionately high level of violence because of "Actions and inactions of the state that have their roots in colonialism and related ideologies, based on a presumption of superiority". After hearing or collecting the testimony of more than 2,000 people, the commission estimates that the victims are probably several thousand, but that "Nobody knows" their exact number.
"Despite a variety of circumstances and contexts, all killings and disappearances share in common economic, social and political marginalization, racism and misogyny, which are integral parts of Canada's social fabric."Marion Buller, Chief Commissioner, explained. According to her, "The harsh reality is that we live in a country whose laws and institutions perpetuate violations of human rights, leading to genocide against women, girls and people" indigenous people from sexual minorities.
"Death by a million small wounds"
Use of the term 'Genocide' – cited more than 120 times in the report – has been sharply criticized, notably by Quebec Premier François Legault. He estimated Monday that the facts advanced in the investigation, although "Very serious"do not sufficiently reflect international or legal definitions of genocide.
"From the evidence that we have heard and read, it was an inescapable conclusion", for its part estimated Mme Buller in front of the journalists:
"We often think of genocides like the Holocaust and mass killings in Africa and elsewhere, and of course it's genocide and it's a tragedy. But the kind of genocide we're suffering in Canada is … the death of a million small wounds, over generations. "
"This is a story that is unimaginable for most Canadians. But for many people, it's a heartbreaking reality. "responded Justin Trudeau, who has made reconciliation with aboriginal peoples a priority in his mandate. "Our justice system did not do them justice and unfortunately failed", he said, but never again 'Genocide'. " It is shameful. This is unacceptable and it must end ", he insisted, promising to launch a "National action plan" to provide answers "Concrete and coherent" to the conclusions of the report.
"Homicide rate nearly seven times higher"
Canada has "Imposed" his "Own laws, institutions and cultures to indigenous peoples" looking for them "Eliminate"recalls the report. "Aboriginal women and girls are twelve times more likely to be abused than non-Aboriginal women"said Michèle Audette, one of the four commissioners of the investigation.
"Between 1997 and 2000, the homicide rate was nearly seven times higher for Aboriginal women than for non-Aboriginal women"she said, citing official statistics. All this violence reflects "Transgenerational and intergenerational trauma" and "Marginalization in the form of poverty, precarious housing or homelessness and barriers to education, employment, health care and cultural support", according to the document.
The survey also included "People of various Métis, Inuit and First Nations gender identities and non-bisexuals represented by the acronym 2ELGBTQQIA (two-spirit, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning and intersexed or asexual people) ".
The report recommends, among other things, that the government create a position of National Advocate for Native Rights, a specialized tribunal and a police oversight body. It also calls for major reforms, making 231 recommendations to improve safety, justice, health and culture for the 1.6 million Aboriginal, Inuit and Métis people, who represent just over 4% of the Canadian population .