The Ronald Kneebone study is based on fertility rates in Canada and the United States and covers a period of almost 100 years.
The researcher points out that fertility rates have varied over time due to, among other things, changing economic conditions and social norms.
In the 1950s, women had an average of four children, whereas today the average is 1.5, he gives as an example.
The fertility rate has been well below the replacement rate since the 1970s. The replacement rate is defined as the fertility rate required for the population to maintain itself.
According to the researcher, despite improved access to family assistance such as parental leave or expanded EI benefits, Canada still needs to increase its labor force.
Data for Canada highlights need for strong immigration to maintain and increase populationhe says.
Immigration responds to current economic and demographic challenges.
Following the dramatic fall in fertility rates since the 1960s, the federal government introduced a number of reforms in immigration policy in the mid-to-late 1970s.
Since the early 1990s, Canada has welcomed between 200,000 and 300,000 immigrants each year.
To help the Canadian population grow despite its low fertility rate, the government recently announced annual targets of about 340,000 new immigrants per year, about 20,000 more than the current number of migrants entering Canada.